Also the Italian for "German", tedesco local or archaic variants: The Germanic language which diutisc most likely comes from is West Frankish, a language which died out a long time ago and which there is hardly any written evidence for today.
The word is only known from the Latin form theodiscus. Until the 8th century the Franks called their language frengisk ; however, when the Franks moved their political and cultural centre to the area where France now is, the term frengisk became ambiguous, as in the West Francian territory some Franks spoke Latin, some vulgar Latin and some theodisc.
For this reason a new word was needed to help differentiate between them. Thus the word theodisc evolved from the Germanic word theoda the people with the Latin suffix -iscus , to mean "belonging to the people", i.
In Eastern Francia , roughly the area where Germany now is, it seems that the new word was taken on by the people only slowly, over the centuries: The word diutsch and other variants were only used by people to describe themselves, at first as an alternative term, from about the 10th century.
It was used, for example, in the Sachsenspiegel , a legal code, written in Middle Low German in about Saxony, Bavaria, Franken and Swabia.
The Teutoni , a tribe with a name which probably came from the same root, did, through Latin , ultimately give birth to the English words "Teuton" first found in for the adjective German, as in the Teutonic Knights , a military religious order, and the Teutonic Cross and "Teuton" noun , attested from In the northern French language area northern France, Belgium , the neighboring Germanic dialects, areas and inhabitants of Flanders to Alsace are sometimes referred to as Thiois , most likely still for the area between Maastricht and Aachen and for the traditional German speaking part of Lorraine Lorraine Thioise , The term is obsolete and derives from theodisc see above .
The name Germany and the other similar-sounding names above are all derived from the Latin Germania , of the 3rd century BC, a word simply describing fertile land behind the limes.
It was likely the Gauls who first called the people who crossed east of the Rhine Germani which the Romans adopted as the original Germanic tribes did not refer to themselves as Germanus singular or Germani plural.
Julius Caesar was the first to use Germanus in writing when describing tribes in north-eastern Gaul in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico: De Origine et situ Germanorum , an ethnographic work on the diverse set of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire.
Unlike Caesar, Tacitus claims that the name Germani was first applied to the Tungri tribe. The name Tungri is thought to be the endonym corresponding to the exonym Eburones.
Caesar claims that most of the northern Belgae were descended from tribes who had long ago crossed the Rhine from Germania.
However many tribal names and personal names or titles recorded are identifiably Celtic. It seems likely that the northern Belgae, due to their intense contact with the Gaulish south, were largely influenced by this southern culture.
Perhaps they were Germanic people who had adopted Gaulish titles or names. The Belgians were a political alliance of southern Celtic and northern Germanic tribes.
In any case, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians: Tacitus wrote in his book Germania: Another theory is gairm , battle-cry put forward by Johann Wachter and Jacob Grimm , who was a philologist as well as collector and editor of fairy tales.
He describes the ger theory as "obsolete". In English, the word "German" is first attested in , replacing earlier uses of Almain , Alman and Dutch.
In German, the word Germanen today refers to Germanic tribes , just like the Italian noun "Germani" adjective: In English, the name "Almain" or "Alman" was used for Germany and for the adjective German until the 16th century, with "German" first attested in , used at first as an alternative then becoming a replacement, maybe inspired mainly by the need to differ them from the more and more independently acting Dutch.
In Othello ii,3, about , for example, Shakespeare uses both "German" and "Almain" when Iago describes the drinking prowess of the English:.
Andrew Boorde also mentions Germany in his Introduction to Knowledge , c. Through this name, the English language has also been given the Allemande a dance , the Almain rivet and probably the almond furnace , which is probably not really connected to the word "almond" of Greek origin but is a corruption of "Almain furnace".
In modern German, Alemannisch Alemannic German is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family, spoken by approximately ten million people in six different countries.
Among the indigenous peoples of North America of former French and British colonial areas, the word for "Germany" came primarily [ citation needed ] as a borrowing from either French or English.
For example, in the Anishinaabe languages , three terms for "Germany" exist: The names Saksamaa and Saksa are derived from the name of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons.
In Finnish and Estonian the words that historically applied to ancient Saxons changed their meaning over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany and the Germans.
In some Celtic languages the word for the English nationality is derived from Saxon, e. The plural form is used for the Germans instead of any specific country name, e.
According to another theory,   Nemtsy may derive from the Rhine-based, Germanic tribe of Nemetes mentioned by Caesar  and Tacitus. In Russian , the adjective for "German", немецкий nemetskiy comes from the same Slavic root while the name for the country is Germaniya Германия.
Likewise, in Bulgarian the adjective is "немски" nemski and the country is Germaniya Германия. Over time, the Slavic exonym was borrowed by some non-Slavic languages.
So the word for German possibly comes from a name originally given by West Baltic tribes to the Vikings. Such names could have been used to describe neighbouring people whose language was incomprehensible to Baltic peoples.
Those names may also derive from Slavic roots, if - then they would mean marauders or nomadic bandits. In East Asia, the names have generally been imported directly from German "deutsch" or Dutch "duits" in various ways.
The Chinese name is a phonetic approximation of the German proper adjective. The Vietnamese name is based on the Chinese name. The Japanese name is a phonetic approximation of the Dutch proper adjective.
The Korean name is based on the Japanese name. This is explained in detail below:. The common Chinese name simplified Chinese: It is now uncommon.
The terminology for "Germany", the "German states" and "Germans" is complicated by the unusual history of Germany over the last years. This can cause confusion in German and English, as well in other languages.
While the notion of Germans and Germany is older, it is only since that there has been a nation-state of Germany.
Later political disagreements and the partition of Germany — has further made it difficult to use proper terminology. Starting with Charlemagne , the territory of modern Germany was within the realm of the Holy Roman Empire.
It was a union of relatively independent rulers who each ruled their own territories. In 19th and 20th century historiography, the Holy Roman Empire was often referred to as Deutsches Reich , creating a link to the later nation state of Roman authors mentioned a number of tribes they called Germani —the tribes did not themselves use the term.
After these tribes were identified by linguists as belonging to a group of Germanic language speakers which include modern languages like German, English and Dutch.
Germani for the people and Germania for the area where they lived became the common Latin words for Germans and Germany. Germans call themselves Deutsche living in Deutschland.
The term was first used to designate the popular language as opposed to the language used by the religious and secular rulers who used Latin. These English terms were obsolete by the 19th century.
This feudal state became a union of relatively independent rulers who developed their own territories. Modernisation took place on the territorial level such as Austria, Prussia, Saxony or Bremen , not on the level of the Empire.
Some of the German countries were then collected into the Confederation of the Rhine , which remained a military alliance under the "protection" of Napoleon, rather than consolidating into an actual confederation.
After the fall of Napoleon in , these states created a German Confederation with the Emperor of Austria as president.
Some member states, such as Prussia and Austria, included only a part of their territories within the confederation, while other member states brought territories to the alliance that included people, like the Poles and the Czechs, who did not speak German as their native tongue.
In addition, there were also substantial German speaking populations that remained outside the confederation. In this era of emerging national movements, "Germany" was used only as a reference to a particular geographical area.
It became a federal state with its constitution of 1 July The remaining South German countries, with the exception of Austria and Liechtenstein, joined the country in Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing and was one of four buyers of the s the others were NASA , Malaysia-Singapore Airlines , and Avianca — while the NASA airframe was the first built, it was the last delivered and originally intended for delivery to Lufthansa.
Lufthansa was the first foreign launch customer for a Boeing airliner. The wide-body era for Lufthansa started with a Boeing flight on April 26, It was followed by the introduction of the DC on November 12, , and the first Airbus A in In Lufthansa and Swissair were launch customers for the Airbus A with an order for twenty-five aircraft.
Ten Boeing s were ordered a few days later. All were delivered between and Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in The fleet was given a new livery, while cabins, city offices, and airport lounges were redesigned.
On October 28, , 25 days after reunification , Berlin became a Lufthansa destination again. On December 6, , Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A superjumbos with 10 more options, which was confirmed on December The A fleet will be used for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively.
It is one of the first terminals in Europe partially owned by an airline. On May 17, , Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by Boeing in-flight online connectivity service.
In autumn , the implementation of a new sales strategy initiated by then-incumbent Executive Vice President Thierry Antinori to make the company fit for the digital era led to the abolition of commission payments for travel agencies and led to a revolution in the German travel business with many travel agencies disappearing from the market on the one hand, and the rise of new digital distribution platforms on the other hand.
The two companies will continue to be run separately. On December 6, , Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing s , becoming the launch customer of the passenger model.
The first A was delivered on May 19, , while the first entered service in After a loss of million euros in the first quarter of and another 13 million loss in the year due to the economic recession and restructuring costs, Deutsche Lufthansa AG cut 3, administrative positions or around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16, In September Lufthansa Group announced its biggest order, for 59 wide-body aircraft valued more than 14 billion euros at list prices.
Earlier in the same year Lufthansa placed an order for next-generation narrow-body aircraft. The pilots staged another 6 hours strike at the end of the Summer holidays in September , which caused the cancellation of Lufthansa flights and Germanwings flights.
At the time, the base consisted of two Airbus As rotating between Newark and Chicago. On 22 March , Lufthansa ended Boeing operations.
Lufthansa operated the in several variants for almost 50 years, the first aircraft having been delivered on 27 December On 4 December , Lufthansa became the first European airline to receive the prestigious Skytrax 5 star certification.
This makes Lufthansa the 10th airline to be holding this award. Lufthansa was a state-owned enterprise and flag carrier until In addition to floor trading, it is also traded electronically using the Xetra system.
The second largest group, with Investors from Luxembourg accounted for 4. Key business and operating results of Lufthansa Group for recent years are shown below as at year ending 31 December:.
Several Lufthansa departments are not at the headquarters; instead they are in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport.
In addition to its main passenger operation, Lufthansa has several airline subsidiaries, including: In addition to the airlines mentioned above, Lufthansa maintains further aviation affiliated subsidiaries: The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was first created in by Otto Firle.
In , Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol, and in , Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it and later in — a variant thereof as redesigned by Robert Lisovskyi.
The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F. In , he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa" which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time.
After World War II, the company kept blue and yellow as their main colours and the crane logo. Since the beginning of the s, Helvetica was used for the company name in the livery.
The fuselage was painted white on top, and was aluminium below a blue window band. The crane logo was painted blue on a yellow parabola inside a blue band on the tail.
German designer Otl Aicher created a comprehensive corporate design for the airline in The crane logo was now always displayed in a circle which, on the livery, was yellow on an otherwise blue tailfin.
Helvetica was used as the main typeface for both the livery and publications. The blue band and general paint scheme of the aircraft were retained from the previous livery.
The blue window band was removed and the bottom part of the fuselage and engines was now painted in light grey. Open Skies Agreement came into effect in Lufthansa sold its stake in JetBlue in March In late , Lufthansa Cargo was forced to relocate a hub from Kazakhstan to Russia.
On August 28, , Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were negotiating joining together. Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June , and the acquisition took place with effect from July 1, Lufthansa completed the purchase of Austrian Airlines from the Austrian government in January In , Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined because it acted as a whistleblower.
In July , a Qantas—Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to support the partnership.
This resulted in engineers being made redundant. This followed just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which resulted in additional job losses.
It was announced that the Lufthansa Technik—Qantas partnership would end in September. Lufthansa also coordinates scheduling and ticket sales on transatlantic flights with Air Canada and United Airlines as do Brussels Airlines, Swiss and Austrian Airlines.
Both ventures required approval of competition authorities. Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early s.
Lufthansa sponsors Bundesliga club Eintracht Frankfurt. Lufthansa codeshares with the following airlines: This tradition continued, with two notable exceptions, until It became the first Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city.
The name commemorates the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports during Operation Yellow Ribbon after the September 11, attacks.
They either never received one or their former one has been given to a newer aircraft, which was the case for several Boeing s.
For example, the former Bayern Bavaria , a Boeing still in active service lost that name to a new Boeing Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation , using parts from three such aircraft bought at auctions.
Lufthansa Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour. Lufthansa had initially ordered a total of 15 Airbus A , of which by June ten were delivered.
In September , the order was increased by two more copies to 17, this order was confirmed on March 14, However, in September it was announced that the Lufthansa Supervisory Board had approved the purchase of only twelve of the first 15 As.
Thus, a total of 14 As have been added to the fleet. Lufthansa uses its As from and to Frankfurt am Main 9 aircraft and since March to and from Munich as well 5 aircraft.
This happened mainly against the backdrop of Christmas shopping in New York City. First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft Airbus A, A, the front part of the upper deck of all Airbus As, and the main deck nose section of all Boeing —8s.
Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa offers dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated First Class lounges in Frankfurt and Munich , as well as a dedicated first class terminal in Frankfurt.
Lufthansa has introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A and plans to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft.
Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. As of , Business Class on all wide body aircraft feature flat bed seats. Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks.
Lufthansa operates four types of lounges within its destination network: Lufthansa also operates a dedicated first class terminal at Frankfurt Airport.
Approximately staff care for approximately passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant, full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms, and offices, as well as bath facilities.
Lufthansa previously operated a check-in point in the city limits of Nuremberg and a bus service from Nuremberg to Munich Airport. This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline aircraft since For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft Hansa.
For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were operated by other airlines, see the respective articles Lufthansa CityLine , Lufthansa Cargo , Contact Air , Germanwings , and Air Dolomiti.
Relations between Lufthansa and their pilots have been very tense in the past years, with many strikes occurring, causing many flights to be cancelled, as well as major losses to the company.
Germanwings is a subsidiary of Lufthansa. Nonetheless, damage control by Spohr and his team was poor according to several sources, as compared to other CEOs in the face of a major accident, with contradictory information given about the mental health and the airworthiness of the co-pilot Andreas Lubitz.
It was revealed that Lubitz suffered from a severe case of depression and mental disorders and had intentionally crashed Germanwings Flight into the French Alps, killing all aboard.
On September 1, , Lufthansa implemented a 16 euro surcharge on Global Distribution System bookings. Media related to Lufthansa at Wikimedia Commons.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lufthansa disambiguation. Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions Year Traffic 78 1, 3, 6, 8, 13, 21, 36, 61, 94, Source: List of Lufthansa destinations.
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