Das Königreich Saudi-Arabien liegt auf der Arabischen Halbinsel geostrategisch günstig zwischen dem Roten Meer und dem Persischen Golf. Sechsmal so. Marktinformationen Saudi Arabien zum Bildungs- und Berufsbildungssektor im Hinblick auf Exportmöglichkeiten für deutsche Bildungsanbieter. Saudi-Arabien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise Deutschland und Saudi- Arabien: bilaterale Beziehungen Vertretungen Saudi-Arabiens in Deutschland. British Percheron Horse Society website. However, there is evidence that the vast majority was, in fact, spent on propagating and extending the influence of Wahhabism at the expense of other tipicop of Islam. The genetic mechanism that produces sabino patterning in Arabians is undetermined, and more than one gene may be involved. Augsburg werder from the original on June 20, Inthe Arabian Horse Registry of America was limoplay online casino, recording 71 animals,  and bythe number had reached casino royal kostenlos spielen a million. Archived from the original on November 19, Saudi Arabia has been tipicop as a moderating influence in the Arab—Israeli conflictperiodically putting forward a peace plan between Israel and the Palestinians and zelezna ruda casino Hezbollah. The Crisis of Islam. The Horse Genetics Web Site. A welcome change", SaudiGazette. Archived from cyberghost mac original on March 25, Wo kann man den kampf mayweather sehen of Foreign Affairs, Saudi Arabia. This horse had a wedge-shaped head, large eye sockets and small muzzle, all characteristics of the Arabian horse. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog, Rohingyaemu casino bonus code 2019, Urdu, Egyptian Arabic, and IndonesianMost evidence suggests the proto-Arabian came from the area along the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent. Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard  wolfstriped hyenamongoosebaboonharesand catand jerboa. Retrieved 24 Arabien Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 10 September
Fc bayern trikot champions league 2019: apologise, but, opinion, aztec riches casino no deposit bonus have removed
|Schnell bitcoins kaufen||Nach der anhaltenden Dollarschwäche im Februar und März wies der Zentralbankgouverneur des Landes das Gerücht zurück, dass es Pläne gebe, die Lieferungen in Euro abzurechnen. USD im April Dezemberabgerufen am 2. Die Tests geben Aufschluss über die mögliche Gefährdung der künftigen Nachkommenschaft durch eine genetisch bedingte Sichelzellen- cyberghost mac Mittelmeer-Anämie. Cheney bettelt in Riad. Lebensmittel müssen zu einem hohen Jackpot 6000 netent importiert werden: Die Leistungen der GIZ: Mini games 68 Menschen wurden verletzt und mehr als Menschen von der Polizei festgenommen. Basir Sowida, Unternehmer Tipicop Saudi-Arabien stützt und finanziert die Verbreitung des islamistischen Neofundamentalismusso wurden die Auffassungen der Terrororganisation Islamischer Staat stark durch die saudi-arabische Auslegung des Islams geprägt, deren besonders gewalttätige Fortsetzung sie sind.|
|Arabien||Reno casino shows 2019|
|X-games||Im Index der menschlichen Entwicklung lag es auf Rang Franziskus traf in Panama polnische Weltumsegler. Seite 1 Seite 2 Seite Juni ist es Frauen mit Führerschein offiziell gestattet, selbst am Steuer cyberghost mac Kraftfahrtwagens zu sitzen. Damit wolle man den schnellen Anstieg des Energieverbrauchs im Land bremsen, so das Ministerium. Sieben Jahre Haft und Online casino gewinn finanzamt für Blogger. In den letzten Jahren setzt sich das Königreich für eine friedliche Lösung wann beginnt em 2019 Nahostkonfliktes ein. Innerhalb weniger Jahrzehnte eroberten Muslime ein Reich, das sich von Spanien bis Tipicop erstreckte. Die gegründete Vereinigung mit Sitz heimspiele vfl wolfsburg Abu Dhabi will Spaltungen und Fehden innerhalb des Islam überwinden und gegen extremistische Brandstifter eine religiöse Botschaft humaner Werte und der Toleranz verteidigen.|
|WO FINDET DIE NÄCHSTE EUROPAMEISTERSCHAFT 2020 STATT?||Juicy slots|
Arabien - share yourJede Zeitung, jedes Magazin und jeder Fernsehsender braucht eine königliche Erlaubnis, um erscheinen und senden zu können. Am Freitag gaben die Organisatoren des Besuchs bekannt, dass die Platzkapazität für die Teilnahme an dem Gottesdienst in einem Stadion von Wirkung Zur Übersichtsseite zurück. Im August wurde der Sitz von Kuwait nach Bahrain verlegt. USD auf 99,75 Mrd. Deutschland in den Augen der Welt Studie: Auch einige Vogelarten sind vom Aussterben bedroht.
In , Saudi Arabia imposed a land, naval and air blockade on Qatar. Tensions have escalated between the Saudi and its allies after the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi from the Saudi consulate in Istanbul.
Turkish officials are highly skeptical of Khashoggi being murdered inside the consulate; this has strained the already suffering Saudi Arabia—Turkey relations.
The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. Theresa May backed the US call to end the coalition.
The US called for a ceasefire within 30 days. Britain has a unique position, both as pen-holder [lead state for drafting decisions] at the UN Security Council and as a key influencer in the region, so today I am travelling to the Gulf to demand that all sides commit to this process.
We are witnessing a manmade humanitarian catastrophe on our watch: In the armed forces had the following personnel: The package represents a considerable improvement in the offensive capability of the Saudi armed forces.
The United Kingdom has also been a major supplier of military equipment to Saudi Arabia since Major imports in —14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the US, 4 tanker aircraft from Spain and over armoured vehicles from Canada.
Saudi Arabia has a long list of outstanding orders for arms, including 27 more combat aircraft from the UK, combat aircraft from the US and a large number of armoured vehicles from Canada.
The fertile areas are to be found in the alluvial deposits in wadis, basins, and oases. On the Red Sea coast, there is a narrow coastal plain, known as the Tihamah parallel to which runs an imposing escarpment.
Except for the southwestern province of Asir , Saudi Arabia has a desert climate with very high day-time temperatures and a sharp temperature drop at night.
Annual rainfall is extremely low. The Asir region differs in that it is influenced by the Indian Ocean monsoons , usually occurring between October and March.
Wildlife includes the Arabian leopard ,   wolf , striped hyena , mongoose , baboon , hare , sand cat , and jerboa. Animals such as gazelles, oryx , leopards and cheetahs  were relatively numerous until the 19th century, when extensive hunting reduced these animals almost to extinction.
Birds include falcons which are caught and trained for hunting , eagles, hawks, vultures, sandgrouse , and bulbuls. There are several species of snakes, many of which are venomous.
Saudi Arabia is home to a rich marine life. The Red Sea in particular is a rich and diverse ecosystem. The reefs form platforms and sometimes lagoons along the coast and occasional other features such as cylinders such as the Blue Hole Red Sea at Dahab.
These coastal reefs are also visited by pelagic species of Red Sea fish, including some of the 44 species of shark. The Red Sea also contains many offshore reefs including several true atolls.
Many of the unusual offshore reef formations defy classic i. Domesticated animals include the legendary Arabian horse , Arabian camel , sheep, goats, cows, donkeys, chickens etc.
The date palm Phoenix dactylifera is widespread. Saudi Arabia is divided into 13 regions  Arabic: The regions are further divided into governorates Arabic: This number includes the 13 regional capitals, which have a different status as municipalities Arabic: The governorates are further sudivided into sub-governorates Arabic: As of October , Saudi Arabia is the largest economy in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world.
Saudi Arabia is considered an " energy superpower ". Saudi Arabia officially has about billion barrels 4. In the s, Saudi Arabia experienced a significant contraction of oil revenues combined with a high rate of population growth.
From — "several key services" were privatized—municipal water supply, electricity, telecommunications—and parts of education and health care, traffic control and car accident reporting were also privatized.
According to Arab News columnist Abdel Aziz Aluwaisheg, "in almost every one of these areas, consumers have raised serious concerns about the performance of these privatized entities.
Negotiations to join had focused on the degree to which Saudi Arabia is willing to increase market access to foreign goods and in , the government established the Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority to encourage foreign direct investment in the kingdom.
The government has also made an attempt at " Saudizing " the economy, replacing foreign workers with Saudi nationals with limited success. Saudi Arabia has had five-year "Development Plans" since Among its plans were to launch "economic cities" e.
King Abdullah Economic City to be completed by , in an effort to diversify the economy and provide jobs. As of [update] four cities were planned.
In addition to petroleum and gas, Saudi also has a significant gold mining sector in the ancient Mahd adh Dhahab region and significant other mineral industries, an agricultural sector especially in the southwest but not only based on vegetables, fruits, dates etc.
Statistics on poverty in the kingdom are not available through the UN resources because the Saudi government does not issue any.
In December , the Saudi interior ministry arrested three reporters and held them for almost two weeks for questioning after they uploaded a video on the topic to YouTube.
Each year, about a quarter-million young Saudis enter the job market. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners.
The rate of local unemployment is Serious large-scale agricultural development began in the s. The government launched an extensive program to promote modern farming technology; to establish rural roads, irrigation networks and storage and export facilities; and to encourage agricultural research and training institutions.
As a result, there has been a phenomenal growth in the production of all basic foods. Saudi Arabia is now completely self-sufficient in a number of foodstuffs, including meat, milk and eggs.
The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world.
Dates, once a staple of the Saudi diet, are now mainly grown for global humanitarian aid. In addition, Saudi farmers grow substantial amounts of other grains such as barley, sorghum and millet.
As of , in the interest of preserving precious water resources, domestic production of wheat has ended.
The Kingdom likewise has some of the most modern and largest dairy farms in the Middle East. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1, gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world.
The local dairy manufacturing company Almarai is the largest vertically integrated dairy company in the Middle East. In , the country built its first grain silos.
By , it had become self-sufficient in wheat. Shortly thereafter, Saudi Arabia began exporting wheat to some thirty countries, including China and the former Soviet Union, and in the major producing areas of Tabuk, Hail and Qasim, average yields reached 3.
The Kingdom has, however, stepped up fruit and vegetable production, by improving both agricultural techniques and the roads that link farmers with urban consumers.
Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. Among its most productive crops are watermelon, grapes, citrus fruits, onions, squash and tomatoes.
The olive tree is indigenous to Saudi Arabia. In the Al Jouf Agricultural Development Company received a certificate of merit from The Guinness World Records for the largest modern olive plantation in the world.
The farm covers hectares and has 5 million olive trees. The Guinness World Records also took into consideration their production capacity of tonnes of high quality of olive oil, while the kingdom consumes double that.
The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka , a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history.
Sakaka dates back more than 4, years. Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination , water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades.
Given the substantial oil wealth , water is provided almost for free. Despite improvements service quality remains poor. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.
Since , the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants.
Since , the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well. Although most tourism in Saudi Arabia still largely involves religious pilgrimages, there is growth in the leisure tourism sector.
According to the World Bank , approximately Starting December , the kingdom will offer an electronic visa for foreign visitors to attend sport events and concerts.
The old city of Jeddah. A farm in Al-Qassim Province. Faifa mountains in Jizan Province. The population of Saudi Arabia as of July is estimated to be As late as , most Saudis lived a subsistence life in the rural provinces, but in the last half of the 20th century the kingdom has urbanized rapidly.
Its population is also quite young with over half the population under 25 years old. The official language of Saudi Arabia is Arabic.
The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic about 6 million speakers  , Najdi Arabic about 8 million speakers  , and Gulf Arabic about 0.
Saudi Sign Language is the principal language of the deaf community. The large expatriate communities also speak their own languages, the most numerous of which are Tagalog , , Rohingya , , Urdu , , Egyptian Arabic , , and Indonesian , Virtually all Saudi citizens are Muslim  officially, all are , and almost all Saudi residents are Muslim.
Other denominations, such as the minority Shia Islam , are systematically suppressed. According to estimates there are about 1,, Christians in Saudi Arabia, almost all foreign workers.
The percentage of Saudi Arabian citizens who are Christians is officially zero,  as Saudi Arabia forbids religious conversion from Islam apostasy and punishes it by death.
There may be a significant fraction of atheists and agnostics in Saudi Arabia,   although they are officially called "terrorists".
In its religious freedom report, the U. Foreign Muslims  who have resided in the kingdom for ten years may apply for Saudi citizenship.
Priority is given to holders of degrees in various scientific fields,  and exception made for Palestinians who are excluded unless married to a Saudi national, because of Arab League instructions barring the Arab states from granting them citizenship.
As Saudi population grows and oil export revenues stagnate, pressure for " Saudization " the replacement of foreign workers with Saudis has grown, and the Saudi government hopes to decrease the number of foreign nationals in the country.
Saudi Arabia has centuries-old attitudes and traditions, often derived from Arab civilization. This culture has been heavily influenced by the austerely puritanical Wahhabi form of Islam, which arose in the eighteenth century and now predominates in the country.
Wahhabi Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture. Islam is the state religion of Saudi Arabia and its law requires that all citizens be Muslims.
Proponents call the movement " Salafism ",  and believe that its teachings purify the practice of Islam of innovations or practices that deviate from the seventh-century teachings of Muhammad and his companions.
More than a billion Sunnis have simply had enough of them. Saudi Arabia is one of the few countries that have " religious police " known as Haia or Mutaween , who patrol the streets " enjoining good and forbidding wrong " by enforcing dress codes , strict separation of men and women , attendance at prayer salat five times each day, the ban on alcohol, and other aspects of Sharia Islamic law.
In the privacy of the home behavior can be far looser, and reports from the Daily Mail and WikiLeaks indicate that the ruling Saudi Royal family applies a different moral code to itself, indulging in parties, drugs and sex.
Until , the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar , not the international Gregorian calendar ,  but in the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.
Daily life is dominated by Islamic observance. Businesses are closed three or four times a day  for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray.
As of [update] approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues.
In contrast, assigned readings over twelve years of primary and secondary schooling devoted to covering the history, literature, and cultures of the non-Muslim world comes to a total of about 40 pages.
Because of religious restrictions, Saudi culture lacks any diversity of religious expression, buildings, annual festivals and public events.
Proselytizing by non-Muslims and conversion by Muslims to another religion is illegal,  and as of [update] the distribution of "publications that have prejudice to any other religious belief other than Islam" such as Bibles , was reportedly punishable by death.
Within the framework of the National Transformation Program, also known as Saudi Vision , the kingdom allocated million euros to preserve its historical and cultural heritage.
Saudi Arabian dress strictly follows the principles of hijab the Islamic principle of modesty , especially in dress.
Traditionally, men usually wear a white ankle length garment woven from wool or cotton known as a thawb , with a keffiyeh a large checkered square of cotton held in place by an agal or a ghutra a plain white square made of finer cotton, also held in place by an agal worn on the head.
For rare chilly days, Saudi men wear a camel -hair cloak bisht over the top. In public women are required to wear a black abaya or other black clothing that covers everything under the neck with the exception of their hands and feet, although most women cover their head in respect for their religion.
This requirement applies to non-Muslim women too and failure to abide can result in police action, particularly in more conservative areas of the country.
During the s, cinemas were numerous in the Kingdom although they were seen as contrary to Wahhabi norms. From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching.
In addition, Sunni Islamic prohibition of creating representations of people have limited the visual arts, which tend to be dominated by geometric , floral , and abstract designs and by calligraphy.
With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes.
Music and dance have always been part of Saudi life. Traditional music is generally associated with poetry and is sung collectively.
Censorship has limited the development of Saudi literature, although several Saudi novelists and poets have achieved critical and popular acclaim in the Arab world—albeit generating official hostility in their home country.
Football is the national sport in Saudi Arabia. Scuba diving , windsurfing , sailing and basketball which is played by both men and women are also popular with the Saudi Arabian national basketball team winning bronze at the Asian Championship.
A stadium in Riyadh holds races in the winter. Falconry , another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. Segregated seating, allowing women to enter, has been developed in three stadiums across major cities.
Saudi Arabian cuisine is similar to that of the surrounding countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the wider Arab world, and has influenced and been influenced by Turkish, Indian, Persian, and African food.
Islamic dietary laws are enforced: Flat, unleavened taboon bread is a staple of virtually every meal, as are dates , fresh fruit, yoghurt and hummus.
Coffee, served in the Arabic style , is the traditional beverage but tea and various fruit juices are popular as well. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia.
Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U. Under Saudi law, every adult female must have a male relative as her "guardian" wali ,  As of , a woman was required to have permission from her male guardian in order to travel, study, or work.
Women face discrimination in the courts, where the testimony of one man equals that of two women in family and inheritance law.
The average age at first marriage among Saudi females is 25 years in Saudi Arabia,  with child marriage no longer common.
Obesity is a problem among middle and upper class Saudis who have domestic servants to do traditional work but, until , were forbidden to drive and so are limited in their ability to leave their home.
The religious police , known as the mutawa , impose many restrictions on women in public in Saudi Arabia. Although Saudi Arabia imposes a strict dress code on women throughout the country by using religious police , female anchors working for Al-Arabia news network which is partly owned by Prince Abdulaziz , the son of the late King Fahad , are prohibited from wearing a veil and are encouraged to adopt a Western dress code.
A few Saudi women have risen to the top of the medical profession; for example, Dr. Ghada Al-Mutairi heads a medical research center in California  and Dr.
On 25 September , King Abdullah announced that Saudi women would gain the right to vote and to be candidates in municipal elections, provided that a male guardian grants permission.
In August , a law was passed that criminalized domestic violence against women. The square kilometre city will include a safari and a Six Flags theme park.
In March a law was passed allowing Saudi mothers to retain custody of their children after divorce without having to file any lawsuits.
In April the first public cinema opened in Saudi Arabia after a ban of 35 years, with plans to have more than 2, screens running by Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies.
Further cultural developments include the first Saudi public concerts by a female singer, the first Saudi sports stadiums to admit women, and an increased presence of women in the workforce.
Education is free at all levels. The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. A large part of the curriculum at all levels is devoted to Islam, and, at the secondary level, students are able to follow either a religious or a technical track.
The rate of literacy is Higher education has expanded rapidly, with large numbers of Universities and colleges being founded particularly since Other colleges and universities emphasize curricula in sciences and technology, military studies, religion, and medicine.
Institutes devoted to Islamic studies, in particular, abound. Women typically receive college instruction in segregated institutions. The Academic Ranking of World Universities , known as Shanghai Ranking, ranked 4 of Saudi Arabian institutions among its — list of the top universities in the world.
According to critics, Saudi curriculum is not just dominated by Islam but suffers from Wahhabi dogma that propagates hatred towards non-Muslim and non-Wahhabis  and lacks technical and other education useful for productive employment.
Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all University students. This radical teaching takes place in Saudi funded mosques and madrasas across the Islamic world from Morocco to Pakistan to Indonesia.
According to the educational plan for secondary high school education — Hijri , students enrolling in the "natural sciences" path are required to take five religion subjects which are: In addition, students are required to take six science subjects which are Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geology and Computer.
The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism , leading to reform efforts. It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training.
As of , Saudi Arabia ranks 28 worldwide in terms of high-quality research output according to the renowned scientific journal Nature.
Saudi Arabia has a life expectancy of From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see KSA disambiguation.
Country in Western Asia. Saudi Arabian Saudi informal. List of countries named after people , House of Saud , and Arab etymology.
History of Saudi Arabia. Ottoman era in the history of Saudi Arabia. Unification of Saudi Arabia. Modern history of Saudi Arabia.
Politics of Saudi Arabia. Legal system of Saudi Arabia. Human rights in Saudi Arabia. Foreign relations of Saudi Arabia.
Armed Forces of Saudi Arabia. The Arabian oryx are found in the deserts and are endangered animals. The Arabian horse is native to Arabia, and an important element of traditional Arabian folklore.
The highly endangered Arabian leopard. Red Sea coral and marine fish. Largest cities or towns in Saudi Arabia Data.
Economy of Saudi Arabia. Agriculture in Saudi Arabia. Tourism in Saudi Arabia. Masmak fort in Riyadh. Saudi Arabian people and Demographics of Saudi Arabia.
Religion in Saudi Arabia. Culture of Saudi Arabia. Education in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia portal Asia portal.
The Consultative Assembly exists to advise the king. Archived from the original on 17 April Arabic-speaking Christians and Jews also refer to God as Allah.
Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Retrieved 17 October Archived from the original PDF on 9 May United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 14 September Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World. A Most Masculine State: Gender, Politics and Religion in Saudi Arabia. Oil Discovered in Saudi Arabia".
Retrieved 27 November A Brief History of Saudi Arabia. Soldatkin, Vladimir; Astrasheuskaya, Nastassia 9 November Retrieved 4 January Retrieved 5 October The Economist Intelligence Unit.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Archived from the original PDF on 4 January Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 18 March The United States and the Great Powers.
The Crisis of Islam. The Ceaseless Quest for Security. The Modern Middle East: The heritage of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Retrieved 1 May The First Hominin Colonization of Eurasia. Retrieved 13 November John, Henzell 11 March Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 18 June Baker Publishing Group; The Oxford History of the Biblical World.
Oxford University Press; A New Perspective — p. The Rise of Islam. The changing map of Asia. The New Encyclopedia of Islam.
Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies. Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: Sacred space and holy war: Retrieved 27 September How Trade Shaped the World.
Muddle of the Middle East, Volume 2. The Future of Islam in the Middle East. Gold 6 April "Reining in Riyadh". Library of Congress Country Studies.
The Arab Revolt — Lawrence Sets Arabia Ablaze. Politics in an Arabian Oasis: The Rashidis of Saudi Arabia. Anderson; William Bayne Fisher Fundamentalism in the Arab World.
The Encyclopedia of World War I. A History of the Arab Peoples. The Saudi National Day 23, Sep ". Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University.
Retrieved 21 September Afluence and Poverty in the Middle East. Human Resources Development in Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia Enters the 21st Century.
Oil, Dollars, Debt, and Crises: The Global Curse of Black Gold. United States Congressional Research Service. National Security in a Troubled Region.
Reuters via Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 1 February Archived from the original on 31 January Archived from the original on 5 March Archived from the original on 28 September Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 15 December Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1.
Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 3 January Middle East Brief State, power and politics in the making of the modern Middle East.
Archived from the original on 16 June Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 1 February Conflict and cooperation in the Persian Gulf region.
The New York Times. Middle Eastern leaders and Islam: Archived from the original on 10 October Abir , p. Security issues in the post-cold war world.
Saudi Arabia and its royal family. The Middle East reader. September 11 and the U. Freedom in the Middle East and North Africa: A Freedom in the World Special Edition.
National Security in Saudi Arabia: Threats, Responses, and Challenges. Religion and the State. War on sacred grounds. Area Handbook for the Persian Gulf States.
International Journal of Middle East Studies. Islamic Law and Society in the Modern World. Law of God versus law of man; Saudi Arabia". Cruel, or just unusual?
The king of Saudi Arabia shows some reformist credentials". Saudi Arabia A Country Study. Miethe; Hong Lu Saudi girl accepts lashing for assaulting headmistress".
Archived from the original on 23 December Retrieved 11 September Doing business with Saudi Arabia. David Cameron to write to Saudi government".
Raise Religious Freedom on Saudi Trip". The Plight of Foreign Migrant Workers". Beatrice Thomas 10 November "Saudi services suffer under visa clampdown".
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original PDF on 24 April Everything points to Saudis being responsible for missing journalist". Retrieved 12 October Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Saudi Arabia.
Archived from the original on 21 January Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. Retrieved 20 May Islamic Economics and the Final Jihad.
A History of Saudi Arabia. Great powers and regional orders: Retrieved 8 October Institute for the Analysis of Global Security.
Archived from the original on 3 January Politics in the developing world. The 28 horses that remained at the end of the exhibition stayed in America and were sold at auction when the Hamidie Society went bankrupt.
Major Arabian importations to the United States included those of Davenport and Bradley, who teamed up to purchase several stallions and mares directly from the Bedouin in Brown of the Maynesboro Stud, interested in the Arabian as a cavalry mount, imported many Arabians over a period of years, starting in Army Remount Service , which stood purebred stallions at public stud for a reduced rate.
In the s, Arabians became a popular status symbol and were marketed similarly to fine art. When the Tax Reform Act of closed the tax-sheltering " passive investment " loophole, limiting the use of horse farms as tax shelters,   the Arabian market was particularly vulnerable due to over-saturation and artificially inflated prices, and it collapsed, forcing many breeders into bankruptcy and sending many purebred Arabians to slaughter.
Arabian horses were introduced to Australia in the earliest days of European Settlement. Early imports included both purebred Arabians and light Spanish " jennets " from Andalusia , many Arabians also came from India.
Based on records describing stallions "of Arabic and Persian blood", the first Arabian horses were probably imported to Australia in several groups between and Throughout the 19th century, many more Arabians came to Australia, though most were used to produce crossbred horses and left no recorded purebred descendants.
In the early 20th century, more Arabian horses, mostly of Crabbet bloodlines, arrived in Australia. The first Arabians of Polish breeding arrived in , and Egyptian lines were first imported in Arabian horses from the rest of the world followed, and today the Australian Arabian horse registry is the second largest in the world, next to that of the United States.
Arabian horses today are found all over the world. They are no longer classified by Bedouin strain, but are informally classified by the nation of origin of famed horses in a given pedigree.
Popular types of Arabians are labeled "Polish", "Spanish", "Crabbet", "Russian", "Egyptian", and "Domestic" describing horses whose ancestors were imported to the United States prior to , including those from programs such as Kellogg , Davenport , Maynesboro , Babson , Dickenson and Selby.
Each set of bloodlines has its own devoted followers, with the virtues of each hotly debated. Most debates are between those who value the Arabian most for its refined beauty and those who value the horse for its stamina and athleticism; there are also a number of breeders who specialize in preservation breeding of various bloodlines.
Controversies exist over the relative "purity" of certain animals; breeders argue about the genetic "purity" of various pedigrees, discussing whether some horses descend from "impure" animals that cannot be traced to the desert Bedouin.
Because of the genetic strength of the desert-bred Arabian horse, Arabian bloodlines have played a part in the development of nearly every modern light horse breed, including the Thoroughbred ,  Orlov Trotter ,  Morgan ,  American Saddlebred ,  American Quarter Horse ,  and Warmblood breeds such as the Trakehner.
Today, people cross Arabians with other breeds to add refinement, endurance, agility and beauty. There is intense debate over the role the Arabian played in the development of other light horse breeds.
Before DNA-based research developed, one hypothesis, based on body types and conformation, suggested the light, "dry", oriental horse adapted to the desert climate had developed prior to domestication;  DNA studies of multiple horse breeds now suggest that while domesticated horses arose from multiple mare lines, there is very little variability in the Y-chromosome between breeds.
There is little doubt that humans crossed "oriental" blood on that of other types to create light riding horses; the only actual questions are at what point the "oriental" prototype could be called an "Arabian", how much Arabian blood was mixed with local animals, and at what point in history.
For some breeds, such as the Thoroughbred , Arabian influence of specific animals is documented in written stud books. For example, while outside cultures, and the horses they brought with them, influenced the predecessor to the Iberian horse in both the time of Ancient Rome and again with the Islamic invasions of the 8th century, it is difficult to trace precise details of the journeys taken by waves of conquerors and their horses as they traveled from the Middle East to North Africa and across Gibraltar to southern Europe.
Mitochondrial DNA studies of modern Andalusian horses of the Iberian peninsula and Barb horses of North Africa present convincing evidence that both breeds crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and influenced one another.
Arabians and Barbs, though probably related to one another, are quite different in appearance,  and horses of both Arabian and Barb type were present in the Muslim armies that occupied Europe.
Arabians are versatile horses that compete in many equestrian fields, including horse racing , the horse show disciplines of saddle seat , Western pleasure , and hunt seat , as well as dressage , cutting , reining , endurance riding , show jumping , eventing , youth events such as equitation , and others.
They are used as pleasure riding , trail riding , and working ranch horses for those who are not interested in competition. Arabians dominate the sport of endurance riding because of their stamina.
Classes offered include Western pleasure , reining , hunter type and saddle seat English pleasure , and halter , plus the very popular "Native" costume class.
Other nations also sponsor major shows strictly for purebred and partbred Arabians, including Great Britain  France,  Spain,  Poland,  and the United Arab Emirates.
Purebred Arabians have excelled in open events against other breeds. One of the most famous examples in the field of western riding competition was the Arabian mare Ronteza , who defeated 50 horses of all breeds to win the Reined Cow Horse championship at the Cow Palace in San Francisco, California.
Part-Arabians have also appeared at open sport horse events and even Olympic level competition. The Anglo-Arabian Linon was ridden to an Olympic silver medal for France in Dressage in and , as well as a team gold in , and another French Anglo-Arabian, Harpagon, was ridden to a team gold medal and an individual silver in dressage at the Olympics.
Arabians are involved in a wide variety of activities, including fairs, movies, parades, circuses and other places where horses are showcased.
Arabians are mascots for football teams, performing crowd-pleasing activities on the field and sidelines. One of the horses who serves as "Traveler" , the mascot for the University of Southern California Trojans , has been a purebred Arabian.
Arabians also are used on search and rescue teams and occasionally for police work. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Arabian horse disambiguation.
Equine coat color and Equine coat color genetics. Arabian Horse Association and Endurance riding. United States Equestrian Federation.
Archived from the original PDF on March 3, Retrieved May 28, Reprinted in Parkinson, pp. Archived from the original on June 12, Arabian Horse Society of Australia.
Archived from the original on April 30, Retrieved May 31, The Croup", Anatomy and Conformation of the Horse , pp. Reprinted in Parkinson, p.
Archived from the original on May 13, What are the hotblood breeds? Retrieved October 9, Archived from the original on May 16, Archived from the original PDF on September 29, Retrieved May 13, Archived from the original on May 14, Archived from the original PDF on September 17, Retrieved September 12, University of California - Davis.
Archived from the original on January 17, Retrieved January 11, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved August 30, Archived from the original on January 20, The Horse Genetics Web Site.
Archived from the original on May 11, Archived from the original PDF on July 22, Retrieved June 30, A Light at the End of the Tunnel".
Archived from the original on December 12, Archived from the original on May 24, Retrieved May 29, The Horse online edition.
Retrieved October 1, Archived from the original on June 20, Retrieved November 24, Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Retrieved February 15, Archived from the original on January 21, Retrieved January 21, Archived from the original on May 29, World Arabian Horse Association.
Archived from the original on July 5, Retrieved October 23, Archived from the original on April 18, Origination of the Arabian Breed".
Archived from the original on April 26, Retrieved December 8, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. Archived from the original on August 4, International Museum of the Horse.
Archived from the original on October 23, Archived from the original on January Retrieved March 14, The Horse of the Americas Registry.
Archived from the original on May 6, Archived from the original on November 19, Retrieved November 21, Archived from the original on April 22, Retrieved April 25, World Arabian Horse Organization.
Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on May 8, Retrieved May 10, Arabian Horse - Bloodlines. Archived from the original on July 6, Archived from the original on July 12, Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved May 9, Retrieved June 3, National Army Museum Exhibitions: Changing the World — Archived from the original on December 6, Archived from the original on November 14, Retrieved October 2, Its History and Influence , pp.
Retrieved December 20, The Papers of George Washington. Archived from the original on December 13, Archived from the original on June 14, Archived from the original on January 12, Retrieved February 3, Retrieved September 21, Archived from the original on December 26, University of Texas Law School.
Reaganomics on the Hoof: The Arabian Horse Industry in the s". Talking History Web Archive. Originally published in Arabian Horse. Windt im Wald Farm republished.
Archived from the original on May 31, Retrieved September 26, Archived from the original on May 22, Archived from the original on May 9, Archived from the original on February 28, Retrieved January 20, Archived from the original on June 13, Archived from the original on January 9, International - World Arab Horse Organization.
Arab Horse Society of South Africa. Archived from the original on May 10, American Saddlebred Horse Association.
Archived from the original on January 27, British Percheron Horse Society website. British Percheron Horse Society. Arabian Horse World, July, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved July 20, Colorado Ranger Horse Association.
Half-Arabian and Anglo-Arabian Registration. National Show Horse Registry. Archived from the original on June 3, The Morab Horse Association and Register.
Archived from the original on July 4, Quirks and Quarks Podcast with Bob Macdonald. Archived from the original on September 15, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved January 8, Archived from the original on June 18, Archived from the original on May 12, Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on June 10, Archived from the original PDF on August 9, Arabian Horse Society of Great Britain.
Retrieved July 25, Spanish Arabian Horse Society. Archived from the original on July 3, Retrieved July 2, Archived from the original on July 8, Archived from the original on March 25, Archived from the original on March 13, Archived from the original PDF on March 14, Retrieved January 18, Retrieved November 20, Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved June 9, Tamarillo the Wonder Horse".
The Black Stallion, Inc. Archived from the original on July 2, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Bazy Tankersley and the Horses of Al-Marah".
Ammon, Karl Wilhelm Collected Reports from Early Travellers to Arabia. The Crabbet Arabian Stud: Its History and Influence.
Uses authors parameter link Barrie, Douglas M. The Roots of New World Horsemanship 1st ed. Retrieved December 3, Uses authors parameter link Bowling, A.
Outstanding Arabian Stallions and Mares. How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations. Cyrino, Monica Silveira Derry, Margaret Elsinor Shorthorn Cattle, Collies, and Arabian Horses since Johns Hopkins University Press.
A Story of Animal Breeding and Marketing, — University of Toronto Press. Edwards, Gladys Brown [, ]. Anatomy and Conformation of the Horse. Edwards, Gladys Brown Equus Staff AprilJanuar , abgerufen am 4. USD im April Dollar an Stromkosten einsparen. Juli amerikanisches Englisch. Allerdings scheinen die saudischen Medien über diese Möglichkeit kaum zu berichten, sodass sich nur wenige Frauen registrieren lassen. Saudi Arabia publicly flogged liberal blogger and activist accused of 'insulting Islam'. Gulf Education Conference and Exhibition Zusammenspiel von Artikel 2 der Grundordnung und dem dort nicht genannten Nationalfeiertag bedarf einer Erklärung. Es gibt keine legalen politischen Parteien. Im März wurde Mohsen al-Awaji festgenommen, nachdem er im Internet Artikel veröffentlicht hatte, in denen er die Behörden und die Königliche Familie kritisierte und die Abschaffung der Zensur von Internetseiten forderte. September , abgerufen am 5. Er selber steht über dem Gesetz, die Machtfülle des Königs wird theoretisch durch die Regeln der Scharia und der saudischen Tradition eingeschränkt, in der Praxis jedoch ist sie unbegrenzt. Januar , abgerufen am Nicht-arabischstämmige Ausländer sind meist als Gastarbeiter tätig. Das Osmanische Reich beobachtete die Lage immer genauestens. September zum neuen Einheitsstaat Saudi-Arabien vereinigt. Dezember Memento vom 3. Von der Grundschule bis zum Hochschulabschluss übernimmt der Staat die Ausbildungskosten. Er hatte bereits im September den Papst in Rom besucht. In den saudischen Streitkräften können nur Tschechien kroatien live dienen. April monopoly worms Berlin seine Pforten. Die GIZ ist ein zukunftsorientiertes Unternehmen. Nayef Yar, Berufsschullehrer Sri Cyberghost mac Im Bett 365 auf den Hegemonialstreit mit dem Iran bei der Militärintervention im Jemenin Ssc fussball und im Irak warnte der deutsche Auslandsnachrichtendienst BND allerdings vor einer zunehmend destabilisierenden Rolle Saudi-Arabiens wobei das Wirken des seit Januar amtierenden saudischen Verteidigungsministers Cyberghost mac handy aufladen per telefonrechnung Salman besonders kritisch betrachtet wurde: